Latest Issue
Volume 3, Issue 1
January 2024

Prevention and Treatment of Natural Disasters (PTND) is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal devoted to original research work on all aspects of natural hazards, reflecting on the mechanisms of natural disasters, disaster prevention, treatment, and risk management, as well as community resilience assessment and enhancement under natural disasters. PTND is interested in all types of natural disasters, with an emphasis on weather and climate disasters (e.g., tropical cyclones, floods, wildfires, and extreme winds) and geological disasters (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and landslides).

  • E-ISSN: 2753-7544
  • Frequency: Semiyearly publication
  • Language: English
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Latest Published Articles


Overview of Fault Zones Based on Remote Sensing Data as Contribution to the Safety of Infrastructure and Land Use in Southern Egypt

Part of a requisite for natural hazard awareness and damage prevention in Egypt is the detailed monitoring of surface fault zones. The inventory of active faults and their risk assessment is an essential contribution to the safety of settlements, land use and infrastructure (railroads, highways, pipelines) and to damage prevention. Thus, this study aims to contribute to the detection, inventory, and documentation of fault zones. Surface faulting hazard assessment considers any surface consequences caused by surface near faults such as abrupt horizontal and vertical displacements and rotations, or mass movements after stronger earthquakes. Long-term, aseismic, slow-creeping movements along fault zones have to be considered as well. Southern Egypt offers unique and optimal conditions for the research of fault zones and their different structural expressions and conditions because of the dry desert climate conditions and relatively low human influence on the landscape in extended areas, especially for the investigation of different types of faults, their interactions with each other and the outcropping rocks, and fault-related deformation structures. Volcanic activity has been influenced in the geologic past often by larger fault zones as dike intrusions, volcanic cones and plugs or craters occur concentrated along these zones of weakness facilitating the uprise of magma. Larger fault zones are crossing reservoir areas. Surface water intrusions into deep-seated faults have played a role in triggering earthquake swarms in the reservoir areas during the last decades. Mapping of active faults is not only an important but also a cost-intense task when carried out in the field or when using geodetic and geophysical data. In the scope of this study, fault detection was carried out based on different open-source satellite data (Landsat 8 and 9, Sentinel 2 optical data, Sentinel 1 and ALOSPASAR radar data, and Google Earth and Bing Map high-resolution satellite images) from the southern part of Egypt. Faults were digitized using ArcGIS and QGIS software. An inventory of fault-related structural features (depressions, ridges, rotation structures, etc.) and rift zones was elaborated based on remote sensing data. An overview of different types of faults and their related structures as well as their interactions with their host rock conditions could be achieved. By merging the inventory results with infrastructural and land use data, critical areas with potential damage risk were pointed out.

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The Convincing Cosmic Energy Gravitational Genesis of the Strongest Geomagnetic Anomalies of the Magnetic Field of the Earth

The author presents convincing evidence of the cosmic (planetary and solar) energy gravitational origin (related to the maximal and minimal combined planetary and solar integral energy gravitational influences on the internal rigid core of the Earth) of the maximal temporal intensifications of the global magnetic processes of the Earth. In fairly good agreement with the calculated date 2007.416666666 AD (of the local minimal planetary and solar integral energy gravitational influence on the internal rigid core), it was observed the very rapid changes of the geomagnetic field near the date March 2007 AD (corresponding approximately to 19-20 April 2007 AD). This fairly good agreement gives the additional convincing argument that the date March 2007 AD can be considered as the possible beginning of the geomagnetic reversal during the evaluated range (2007÷2216) AD. The strong magnetic anomaly occurred on 6 January 2020 AD in perfect agreement with the calculated date 2020.016666667 AD (corresponding to 6 January 2020 AD) related to the local maximal planetary and solar integral energy gravitational influence on the internal rigid core. In fairly good agreement with the calculated date 2023.26666666 AD (corresponding approximately to 7 April 2023 AD) of the local maximal planetary and solar integral energy gravitational influence on the internal rigid core, it was observed the strongest (during the last 6 years) magnetic anomaly on 23 March 2023 AD. These convincing agreements demonstrate the physical validity of the established global prediction thermohydrogravidynamic principles, which can be considered as the proven physical basis for the development of the general unified geophysical theory (describing the possible geomagnetic reversal during the evaluated  range (2007 ÷ 2216) AD) combining the Special Theory of Relativity, the relativistic electrodynamics and the relativistic theory of the non-stationary gravitation, which can be developed based on the established physical analogy between the established relation  for the energy flux (of the gravitational energy) and the Lorentz’s calibration condition (for the vector potential related with the scalar potential of the non-stationary electromagnetic field).

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For the Classification of Anomalous Geophysical Fields that Existed Prior to an Earthquake

The consolidated paper presents work carried out in the sphere of earthquake problems. On the base of theoretical and experimental studies, it is shown earthquake prediction possibility. There are discussed earthquake indicators and triggering exogenous factors in the example of the Caucasus region. Because the earthquake preparation process causes anomalous changes with complex characteristics in various geophysical fields, it is given scientifically proven suggestions for the classification of these fields as earthquake precursors, indicators, and triggering factors. It offers a short-term plan for future work in the earthquake prediction direction.


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Overview of Circular Structures of Various Origins and Sizes in Egypt as a Contribution to Natural Hazard Data Mining Based on Remote Sensing Data and Geoinformation Systems (GIS) Analysis

This study is focused on the detection and typification of circular features with different sizes, origins, and states of erosion as well as on their surrounding tectonic setting, as well as on their impact on the environment and on the occurrence of natural hazards based on different satellite data of Egypt. Sentinel 2, Landsat and ASTER images and Sentinel 1- and ALOS L-band Phased Array Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR)-radar data make it possible to identify larger ring structures as well as smaller circular features like maars or sinkholes in karst areas. Evaluations of the various satellite data contribute to the systematic and standardized inventory ring structures, most of which are related to magmatic intrusions. Such an inventory is a prerequisite for hazard preparedness and should be part of natural hazard data mining integrated into a Geo Information System (GIS). Mapping traces of volcanic activities (craters, maars, cones) is essential as a contribution to land use planning. By gathering the data and integrating the knowledge of the different ring structures in standardized GIS data base one of the many steps towards hazard preparedness and adapted land use planning can be achieved. Circular features are often buried by aeolian and fluvial sediments and become only visible on radar images or on Landsat or ASTER RGB images combining thermal bands. Larger ring structures have not only an influence on groundwater flow but also on geodynamic activity (earthquakes and related secondary effects).

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