Volume 1 Issue 2 (2022): June 2022

Article

Forecast of Using Renewable Energies in the Water and Wastewater Industry of Iran

Since water and wastewater are considered as one of the most prominent energy consumers in the field of urban industries, the main objective of this study is to provide a new assessment approach in applying renewable energy in the water and wastewater industry. In this paper, an essential review of current energy storage options for different cases processes using different renewable energy and heat sources with a focus on heat storage systems and battery energy storage is given. High energy requirements currently priced by fossil fuels are expensive. The use of alternative energy sources is essential for the growing demand for water desalination. Different methods have been proposed to show the energy recovery techniques and use of renewable energy in the treatment of wastewater containing wastewater. The results indicated that increase in water supply and electricity consumption was evidenced by the increase in Tehran’s annual population. In addition to the higher emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from diesel and oil power plants than the natural gas-fueled plants, by increasing the carbon tax to more than 30 USD per ton of CO2, it is expected that the emissions will be reduced by 30 % in all fossil-fueled power plant types.
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Article

Cellulase Production by Myceliophthora thermophila in Solid State Fermentation and Its Utility in Saccharification of Rice Straw

Optimization of cellulase production by thermophilic mould Myceliophthora thermophila BJTLRMDU3 was studied in solid state fermentation. Myceliophthora thermophila produced maximum cellulase (45.81 U/g DMR) at substrate to moisture ratio of 1:3 with 5-d old inoculum at water activity 0.95, ammonium sulfate (0.5%) and PEG 20000 (0.5%) at 45 °C using “one variable at a time” approach. Further supplementation of Tween-20 (0.5%) and K2HPO4 (0.25%) enhanced the cellulase production (56.06 U/g DMR) by M. thermophila in SSF. Optimization of saccharification by partially purified cellulase of M. thermophila (20 U), liberated maximum reducing sugars at pH 5.0 (185.56 mg/g substrate) and 60 °C (190.83 mg/g substrate) after 24 h (203.91 mg/g substrate) from sodium carbonate pretreated rice straw as compared to untreated biomass. Liberated reducing sugars were higher in sodium carbonate pretreated rice straw than untreated rice straw.
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Article

Determination of Optimal Designs for Geothermal Energy Piles in the Soil Supporting a Multi-storey Building

The article presents the optimal design of geothermal energy piles supporting a multi-story building at different pile spacing. The optimization model OPTPILE, based on the construction cost of the single pile, was used for this purpose. It was provided with geotechnical and structural design constraints that satisfy the requirements of building codes. The optimal design of a geothermal energy pile was studied for a 10-storey building with different pile spacing. So far, only a single energy pile has been optimized and therefore the spacing between the piles has not yet been considered in the design. However, in this work, pile spacing is taken into account by considering the entire load distribution of the multi-story building. A 3D beam-slab frame was created to determine the pile loads. The recommendation for the optimal design of geothermal energy pile spacing for a 10-storey building was developed. The results show that the optimal pile spacing (square distribution) for a 10-storey building is about 7 m. The construction cost for all thermal pile foundations and concrete structural components for a 10-storey building is estimated to be 101.1 €/m2 . The optimal architecturally reasonable spacing of piles with a square distribution for a 10-storey building is 8.5 m. In this case, the cost of the concrete structural elements of the building and the piles increases by 1% to 102.1 €/m2 . The cost of installing the heating pipes in the pile is about 1 €/m2 .

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Review

Assessment of Renewable Energy Production Capacity of Asian Countries: A Review

Most Asian countries have the capacity of renewable energy, including solar, hydro, wind, etc. Asian countries are geographically placed in an area with various climatic circumstances including tropical, and humid. Hence, easy access is provided to various renewable energy sources. The energy policies have been initiated by Asian governments for encouraging individuals and industries for employing renewable energy powered systems in power applications. There are large potentials of sustainable energy sources in Asian countries. Nevertheless, owing to different challenges, they globally perform in renewable energy deployment. The present paper deals with a comprehensive and updated overview of the renewable energy status in the Asian countries along with the present installed renewable energy capacities. The energy setup and renewable energy made in Asian countries are briefly described in this paper. Studying the years 2000 to 2019 comprehensively, the results revealed that China, India and Japan had the most renewable energy capacity in Asia with 790000 MW, 133000 MW and 120000 MW in 2019 respectively. Also the energy produced by renewable energy for these countries in 2019 was 1739400 GWH, 288622 GWH and 190587 GWH respectively.

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