New Energy Exploitation and Application


Victoria’s Energy Transition using n Bottom Line Analysis


  • Glen Currie
    Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Riley Cousins Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Alexander Diplaris Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Sebastian Drimer Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Matthew Foley Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of Melbourne, Australia


Currie, G., Cousins, R., Diplaris, A., Drimer, S., & Foley, M. (2023). Victoria’s Energy Transition using n Bottom Line Analysis. New Energy Exploitation and Application, 2(2), 1–10.

To achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, Australia must decarbonise the energy sector and other sectors. The 'energy transition' is driven by policy-led construction of renewable infrastructure and regulation changes. However, no holistic analysis of the path forward currently exists. This research aims to develop a clear plan for Victoria's energy transition by evaluating three scenarios. A Business as Usual (BAU) scenario is compared against two alternative solutions. The alternates emulate two of Victoria's possible trajectories. Alternative 1 (ALT1) focuses on Victoria's reliance on imported interstate renewable energy, while Alternative 2 (ALT2) involves Victoria becoming self-sufficient through renewable generation. Each of the three scenarios is compared across four bottom lines: technical performance, social, economic, and environmental. Interviews among energy experts revealed that economic and social metrics were considered most important. Applying the n-bottom line (nBL) assessment framework delivers a result that finds ALT2 and ALT1 tied as the preferred solution. Hence, the construction of renewable infrastructure in Victoria and increased interstate transmission capacity should be built. Further research could include a deeper understanding of the embodied carbon in infrastructure built for the energy transition.


Energy transition Victoria Mixed-method Renewable energy N bottom Line Electricity Carbon


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