The authors shall retain the copyright of their work but allow the Publisher to publish, copy, distribute, and convey the work.
Journal of Intelligent Communication (JIC) publishes accepted manuscripts under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Authors who submit their papers for publication by Journal of Intelligent Communication (JIC) agree to have the CC BY 4.0 license applied to their work, and that anyone is allowed to reuse the article or part of it free of charge for any purpose, including commercial use. As long as the author and original source is properly cited, anyone may copy, redistribute, reuse and transform the content.
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a technique for determining a measure’s factor structure and assessing its internal consistency or reliability. EFA is essential for determining which components should be included in the study instrument. Social media is one of the most critical factors that affect online shopping behaviour. Thus, this study aims to use exploratory factor analysis to validate an instrument measuring social media in the context of online shopping. The questionnaire used in this study is adapted from previous studies. The researchers utilised a cross-sectional research design to conduct the EFA, collecting data from 100 respondents using a structured survey. The result shows that the construct has one component. The KMO is 0.892, and the outcome of Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chisquare = 510.816, p-value 0.000; this indicated that the data are okay to proceed. Cronbach’s Alpha was higher than 0.7, meaning that all items are reliable. The study concludes that the instruments used to measure social media in this research are valid and reliable.
Keywords:Social media Online shopping Exploratory factor analysis Instrument
- Voorveld, H.A., 2019. Brand communication in social media: A research agenda. Journal of Advertising. 48(1), 14-26.
- Voorveld, H.A., Van Noort, G., Muntinga, D.G., et al., 2018. Engagement with social media and social media advertising: The differentiating role of platform type. Journal of Advertising. 47(1), 38-54.
- Briciu, V.A., Briciu, A., 2021. Social media and organizational communication. Encyclopedia of Organizational Knowledge, Administration, and Technology: IGI Global. pp. 2609-2624.
- Sheth, J.N., 2018. How social media will impact marketing media. Social media marketing: Springer. pp. 3-18.
- Gensler, S., Völckner, F., Liu-Thompkins, Y., et al., 2013. Managing brands in the social media environment. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 27(4), 242- 256.
- Muller, E., Peres, R., 2019. The effect of social networks structure on innovation performance: A review and directions for research. International Journal of Research in Marketing. 36(1), pp. 3-19.
- Dolan, R., Conduit, J., Fahy, J., et al., 2016. Social media engagement behaviour: a uses and gratifications perspective. Journal of Strategic Marketing. 24(3-4), 261-277.
- Godey, B., Manthiou, A., Pederzoli, D., et al., 2016. Social media marketing efforts of luxury brands: Influence on brand equity and consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research. 69(12), 5833-5841.
- Al Amin, M., Nowsin, N., Hossain, I., et al., 2020. Impact of social media on consumer buying behaviour through online value proposition: A study on e-commerce business in Bangladesh. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 19(5), 1-18.
- Yahaya Nasidi, Q., Hassan, I., Fazil Ahmad, M., 2021. Mediating role of social media in the relationship between reliability, perceived usefulness on online shopping behaviour: building a conceptual framework. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences.
- Anshari, M., Almunawar, M.N., Lim, S.A., et al., 2019. Customer relationship management and big data enabled: Personalization & customization of services. Applied Computing and Informatics.15(2), 94- 101.
- Dellaert, B.G., 2019. The consumer production journey: marketing to consumers as co-producers in the sharing economy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 47(2), 238-254.
- Susanto, H., Fang Yie, L., Mohiddin, F., et al., 2021. Revealing social media phenomenon in time of COVID-19 pandemic for boosting start-up businesses through digital ecosystem. Applied System Innovation. 4(1), 6.
- Hoque, A., Awang, Z., 2016. The impact of marketing strategy on small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs): Case study in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the International Postgraduate Research Conference (IPRC 2016), Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Gong Badak Campus, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. pp. 8-10.
- Shabir, G., Safdar, G., Hussain, J.S., 2019. Social media defy spiral of silence theory and provides baseline for new spiral of social media theory: ground perspective. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS). 39(4).
- Vishnoi, S.K., Saini, A., Bagga, T., 2020. Social media analytics: impact & implications in healthcare. International Journal for Modern Trends in Science and Technology. 6, 22-28.
- Wereda, W., 2021. The role of social media in the enterprise’s communication with its stakeholders. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio H Oeconomia. 55(3), 133-146.
- Manu, B.D., Ying, F., Oduro, D., et al., 2021. Student engagement and social media in tertiary education: The perception and experience from the Ghanaian public university. Social Sciences & Humanities Open. 3(1), 100100.
- Sweet, K.S., LeBlanc, J.K., Stough, L.M., et al., 2020. Community building and knowledge sharing by individuals with disabilities using social media. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 36(1), 1-11.
- Ahmad, S.Z., Ahmad, N., Bakar, A.R.A., 2018. Reflections of entrepreneurs of small and medium-sized enterprises concerning the adoption of social media and its impact on performance outcomes: Evidence from the UAE. Telematics and Informatics. 35(1), 6-17.
- Lawrence, D., 2022. Digital writing: a guide to writing for social media and the web. Broadview Press.
- Amoah, J., Jibril, A.B., 2021. Social media as a promotional tool towards SME’s development: Evidence from the financial industry in a developing economy. Cogent Business & Management. 8(1), 1923357.
- Hayes, J.L., Brinson, N.H., Bott, G.J., et al., 2021. The influence of consumer–brand relationship on the personalized advertising privacy calculus in social media. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 55, 16-30.
- Dolega, L., Rowe, F., Branagan, E., 2021. Going digital? The impact of social media marketing on retail website traffic, orders and sales. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 60, 102501.
- Muhammedrisaevna, T.M., Bakhriddinovna, A.N., Rasulovna, K.N., 2021. Use of digital technologies in marketing. E-Conference Globe. pp. 281-284.
- Harrison, R.L., Reilly, T.M., Creswell, J.W., 2020. Methodological rigor in mixed methods: An application in management studies. Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 14(4), 473-495.
- Creswell, J.W., 2012. Educational research: planning. Conducting, and Evaluating.
- Morin, A.J., Myers, N.D., Lee, S., 2020. Modern factor analytic techniques: Bifactor models, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and bifactor-ESEM. Handbook of sport psychology. 1044- 1073.
- Kherif, F., Latypova, A., 2020. Principal component analysis. Machine Learning. Academic Press. 209- 225.
- El-Den, S., Schneider, C., Mirzaei, A., et al., 2020. How to measure a latent construct: psychometric principles for the development and validation of measurement instruments. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 28(4), 326-336.
- Sekaran, U., Bougie, R., 2003. Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Willey & Sons.
- Hair, J., Anderson, R., Babin, B., et al., 2010. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Pearson Upper Saddle River. 7.
- Taber, K.S., 2018. The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education. 48(6), 1273-1296.