Comparative Simulation Analysis of Electric Vehicle Powertrains with Different Configurations Using AVL Cruise and MATLAB Simulink


Taha, Z., Aydın, K., Arafah, D., & Sughayyer, M. (2024). Comparative Simulation Analysis of Electric Vehicle Powertrains with Different Configurations Using AVL Cruise and MATLAB Simulink. New Energy Exploitation and Application, 3(1), 171–184.


  • Zeedan Taha Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey
  • Kadir Aydın
    Automotive Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey
  • Diya Arafah Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Palestine Polytechnic University, P726 Hebron, Palestine
  • Momen Sughayyer Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Palestine Polytechnic University, P726 Hebron, Palestine

Electric vehicles are now recognized as a crucial answer in the worldwide effort to achieve sustainable and environment-friendly transportation. As the automotive industry moves towards using electric power, it is crucial to assess and improve the powertrain configurations in electric vehicles. This study aims to meet this need by conducting an in-depth comparative analysis of single, double, and quad electric vehicle powertrain systems. The performance of these configurations is rigorously simulated by using two widely used platforms: AVL Cruise and MATLAB Simulink. This study mainly covers the analysis of energy efficiency, which is a critical factor in determining the environmental impacts and feasibility of electric vehicles. In order to conduct a thorough comparison, the energy consumption per kilometer is evaluated as a crucial performance measure. Our research primarily focuses on model validation, namely by comparing it with manufacturer data to determine the accuracy and reliability of the simulation results. The findings reveal a compelling narrative in the pursuit of sustainable transportation. The use of a dual motor setup stands out as a prominent example of energy efficiency, demonstrating remarkable outcomes in both simulation platforms. Significantly, these findings closely correspond with the manufacturer's data for the Volvo XC40, confirming the appropriateness and dependability of our simulation models. Furthermore, the quad motor configuration shows significant energy efficiency, providing helpful insight regarding its applicability and performance. The broader implications of this research go beyond powertrain configurations, including the trustworthiness of simulation models in the automotive industry. These findings improve the continuous advancement of electric vehicle design and development, indicating a more environment-friendly and energy-efficient future for the automotive industry. This study offers invaluable insights and benchmarks for the transition to environment-friendly transportation solutions, as the world advances towards sustainable mobility.


electric vehicles simulation analysis driving cycle efficient transportation energy efficiency powertrain configurations

Author Biographies

Zeedan Taha, PhD student in Mechanical Engineering at Çukurova University since 2021, ORCID: Bachelor’s degree in Automotive Engineering from Palestine Polytechnic University (2015). Master’s degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability from a joint program between Palestine Polytechnic University and Al-Quds University (2020). Former instructor at the College of Applied Professions, Palestine Polytechnic University (2015–2021). Research interests: hybrid and electric vehicles, eco-friendly vehicles, and renewable energy.

Kadir Aydın, Professor in Automotive Engineering, ORCID: Kadir Aydın received his B.Sc. degree in 1983 and M.Sc. degree in 1986 from the Mechanical Engineering Department of Çukurova University. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1993 at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Liverpool University. He became Assistant Professor in 1993, Associate Professor in 1995 and Professor in 2001 in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Çukurova University. He currently works as a Professor at Çukurova University, Department of Automotive Engineering. His special research areas are Internal Combustion Engines, Vehicle Technology, Combustion, Hydrogen and Electric Vehicles, Alternative Fuels (Hydrogen, Biodiesel, Bioethanol and Biogas) and Additive Manufacturing.

Diya Arafah, assistant professor of Automotive Engineering, PhD in machine and vehicle design- Politecnico di Milano, Academic supervisor of Automotive Engineering BENG program, Academia representative in the technical committee of vehicle and auxiliaries at Palestine Standard Institute. Academia representative in the Technological and Innovation Support Center (TISC), Ministry of National Commerce. Certified Expert of Intellectual property rights from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). PhD Scholarship, Politecnico Di Milano. Master's Degree scholarship, Chamber of Commerce of Milan. Award for Young Researchers – IGF 21, Italy. Research interests: Vehicle dynamics, hybrid and electric vehicles, vision and embedded control and automation.

Momen Sughayyer, assistant professor of Automotive engineering, served as vice president for planning and development, participated in drafting and coordinating different national and international funded projects, participated at the sixth session of the leadership development program on leading globally engaged universities organized by the International Association of Universities SNSPA in Romania with UNESCO support, serving as local manager of several MED-QUAD project, ENI-CBC-MED programs. Research interests: Vehicle dynamics, internal combustion engines, hybrid and electric vehicles.


  • Conducts in-depth comparative analysis of electric vehicle powertrain systems using AVL Cruise and MATLAB Simulink.
  • Focuses on energy efficiency as a critical performance measure, essential for environmental impact assessment in electric vehicles.
  • Demonstrates significant performance variations across single, double, and quad motor setups, providing crucial insights into powertrain efficiency.
  • Enhances understanding of electric vehicle powertrain optimization through detailed simulation-based analysis.
  • Offers benchmarks and recommendations for future electric vehicle design and development, emphasizing sustainability and energy efficiency.


  1. Šare, A.; Krajačić, G.; Pukšec, T.; Duić, N. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles into the Power System of the Dubrovnik Region. Energy, Sustainability Soc. 2015, 5, 1–16.
  2. Kurian, A. Sustainable Marketing: Electric Vehicles' Commitment to a Sustainable Future. Ushus: J. Bus. Manage. 2023, 22, 13–25.
  3. Zhuang, W.; Li, S.; Zhang, X.; Kum, D.; Song, Z.; Yin, G.; Ju, F. A Survey of Powertrain Configuration Studies on Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Appl. Energy 2020, 262, 114553.
  4. Tran, M.K.; Akinsanya, M.; Panchal, S.; Fraser, R.; Fowler, M. Design of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain for Performance Optimization Considering Various Powertrain Components and Configurations. Vehicles 2020, 3, 20–32.
  5. Alpaslan, E.; Çetinkaya, S.A.; Alpaydın, C.Y.; Korkmaz, S.A.; Karaoğlan, M.U.; Colpan, C.O.; Erginer, K.E.; Gören, A. A Review on Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powertrain Modeling and Simulation. Energy Sources, Part A 2021, 1–37.
  6. Kumar, D.; Nema, R.K.; Gupta, S. A Comparative Review on Power Conversion Topologies and Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles. Int. J. Energy Res. 2020, 44, 7863–7885.
  7. Thai, P.Q.; Tai, V.C.; Tri, H.D.; Nam, V.T. A Study of Converting a Conventional Vehicle into an Electric Vehicle. Int. J. Mech. Eng. Rob. Res. 2022, 11, 569–574.
  8. Cioroianu, C.C.; Marinescu, D.G.; Iorga, A.; Sibiceanu, A.R. Simulation of an Electric Vehicle Model on the New WLTC Test Cycle Using AVL Cruise Software. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 2017, 252, 12060.
  9. Chen, D.; Wang, T.; Qiao, T.; Yang, T.; Ji, Z. Driving Cycle Recognition Based Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. IEEE Access 2022, 10, 77732–77743.
  10. Wang, B.H.; Luo, Y.G. AVL Cruise-based Modeling and Simulation of EQ6110 Hybrid Electric Public Bus. In Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling, Taiyuan, China, 22–24 October 2010.
  11. Tian, L. Dynamics Simulation of AVL Cruise Pure Electric Vehicle and Analysis of Influencing Factors of Urban Cycle Conditions. Adv. Eng. Tech. Res. 2023, 4, 486–493.
  12. Yurdaer, E.; Kocakulak, T. Comparison of Energy Consumption of Different Electric Vehicle Power Systems Using Fuzzy Logic-Based Regenerative Braking. Eng. Perspect. 2021, 1, 11–21.
  13. Jones, W.D. Putting Electricity Where the Rubber Meets the Road. IEEE Spectrum 2007, 44, 18–20.
  14. Sorniotti, A.; Holdstock, T.; Pilone, G.L.; Viotto, F.; Bertolotto, S.; Everitt, M.E.; Barnes, R.; Stubbs, B.; Westby, M. Analysis and Simulation of the Gearshift Methodology for a Novel Two-Speed Transmission System for Electric Powertrains with a Central Motor. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D 2012, 226, 915–929.
  15. Sorniotti, A.; Holdstock, T.; Everitt, M.; Fracchia, M.; Viotto, F.; Cavallino, C.; Bertolotto, S. A Novel Clutchless Multiple-Speed Transmission for Electric Axles. Int. J. Powertrains 2013, 2, 103–131.
  16. Zeedan, T.; Aydın, K. Comparative Analysis of Single, Double and Quad Electric Vehicle Powertrain Systems. Int. J. Automot. Sci. Tech. 2022, 6, 324–330.
  17. Ilimbetov, R.Y.; Popov, V.V.; Vozmilov, A.G. Comparative Analysis of NGTU–Electro Electric Car Movement Processes Modeling in MATLAB Simulink and AVL Cruise Software. Proc. Eng. 2015, 129, 879–885.
  18. Electric Vehicle Database: Volvo XC40 Recharge Twin Motor. Available online: (accessed on 25 May 2024).