Cybersecurity Issues in Brain-Computer Interfaces: Analysis of Existing Bluetooth Vulnerabilities


Angelakis, D., Ventouras, E., Kostopoulos, S., & Asvestas, P. (2024). Cybersecurity Issues in Brain-Computer Interfaces: Analysis of Existing Bluetooth Vulnerabilities. Digital Technologies Research and Applications, 3(2), 115–139.


  • Dimitris Angelakis
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of West Attica, Athens 12243, Greece
  • Errikos Ventouras Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of West Attica, Athens 12243, Greece
  • Spyros Kostopoulos Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of West Attica, Athens 12243, Greece
  • Pantelis Asvestas Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of West Attica, Athens 12243, Greece

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) hold immense promise for human benefits, enabling communication between the brain and computer-controlled devices. Despite their potential, BCIs face significant cybersecurity risks, particularly from Bluetooth vulnerabilities. This study investigates Bluetooth vulnerabilities in BCIs, analysing potential risks and proposing mitigation measures. Various Bluetooth attacks such as Bluebugging, Bluejacking, Bluesnarfing, BlueBorne, Location Tracking, Man-in-the-Middle Attack, KNOB, BLESA and Reflection Attack are explored, along with their potential consequences on commercial BCI systems. Each attack is examined in terms of its modus operandi and effective mitigation strategies.


Brain-Computer Interfaces; cybersecurity; Bluetooth

Author Biography

Dimitris Angelakis is currently a Cyber Security Consultant at Performance Technologies S.A., since 2015. He is also a Professor at Institute of Vocational Training OMIROS, teaching courses such as Introduction to Computer Science, Computer Architecture, Operating Systems, Databases, Networks and Network Management since 2022. He has a robust background in information technology, specializing in Statistical Data Analysis, Python, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity, Biomedical Engineering and Brain-Computer Interfaces.  Dimitris completed his Bachelor's degree in Informatics Engineering at the Technological Educational Institute of Western Macedonia in 2014. He then obtained a Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Biomedical Engineering from the University of West Attica in 2017. Currently, he is pursuing a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering  at the same institution. His research interests are centered around Cybersecurity, Brain-Computer Interfaces, and Machine Learning.


  • Provides a comprehensive review of cybersecurity issues in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), particularly focusing on Bluetooth vulnerabilities.
  • Discovers significant Bluetooth vulnerabilities in BCIs that could be exploited for malicious purposes, shedding new light on potential security risks.
  • Offers a framework of practical implications, emphasizing the need for robust cybersecurity measures to protect users and maintain data integrity in this emerging technology field.


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